Sources of Surface Water Pollution
Surface water is polluted by the following agents:
Industrial pollution: The pollution of rivers, streams and lakes by various industrial wastes, called effluents dumped into the aquatic systems is called Industrial pollution. For example 24 tons of waste water is generally discharged for every ton of paper produced in paper industry.
The industrial wastes are the major sources of surface water pollution. The major industrial wastes come from industries like paper mills, textile mills, sugar mills, tanneries, distilleries, chemical and fertilizers and plants etc. Wastes include chemicals like, chlorine, nitrates, ammonia, naphthalene, arsenic, lead etc.
Agricultural wastes: DDT, BHC, Endrin, etc. used in agriculture as insecticide, pesticides are washed off along with rains and pollute the surface water.
Radioactive wastes: Radioactive waste from Atomic reactors, contain different kinds of radioactive isotopes and if these are discharged into aquatic system, they not only pollute the water but also adversely affect aquatic life.
Thermal pollution: Hot water from industries if released directly into the river water, temperature of river waters might rise by 25°F from the usual temperature and water pollution occurs.
By Municipal sewage: Municipal sewage is another source of surface water pollution. People defecating in open fields is a very common sight in many rural areas of our country. The rain carries human excreta and animal dung into the nearby water reservoirs. Human excreta and dung contain harmful microorganisms that can cause diseases like diarrhea, gastroenteritis, dysentery and jaundice. Sewage is obtained from the disposal of wastes from lavatories, bathrooms, kitchens etc.
Oil pollution: Water pollution by oil creates a very special problem because of oil forms a thin layer on the vast areas of water surface which causes respiratory problem of aquatic organisms.