Water Pollution is the contamination of water bodies. It occurs as a result of introduction of pollutants in water. Water is life. Still, we contribute in polluting the water bodies in several ways.
Water Pollution is mainly caused as a result of improper discharge of household and industrial chemicals wastes into the water bodies.
These dangerous chemicals (in the form of solid, liquid or gases) mixes with water and make it unsafe for living bodies. Water pollutants cause harm to human-beings, animals, trees and other constituents of environment.
The sources, effects, and control measures of Water Pollution are discussed below.
The Sources of water pollution are:
- Industry: Effluents from the factories.
- Sewage: From human excreta to liquids of house hold works, drain water containing feces, urine and other pollutants.
- Physical Pollution: heat and ionic radiation.
- Different household activities.
- Agriculture: Different chemical fertilizers, fungicides, pesticides used in agricultural field are washed out rain water and pollute by the different water bodies.
- Minerals: Minerals above a certain level in the soil or present in the rocks, mix with water and results in pollution.
Effect of water pollution on human health
- Presence of toxic metals in water may cause skin disease, dysentery, amoebiasis, anorexia, etc.
- Radioactive substances present in water may lead to radioactive pollution causing cancer.
- In polluted water the different water borne virus, bacteria, and protozoa are present. They cause small diseases likely pox, chicken pox, dysentery, amoebiasis, tuberculosis etc.
Control of water pollution
- The toxic industrial and agricultural runoff should be properly treated before mixing with water sources.
- Drinking water should be properly treated to make it free from any germs.
- The sewage system should be much more scientific.
- The waste water should be purified before it goes to the river.
- The toxic chemicals from industries should be properly treated prior to discharge into the environment.
- Cultivation of Salvinia and Azolla in the pond or lake can fix toxic metal and hence metal pollution can be reduced.
- The domestic or household effluents should be discharged properly.