Water Pollution refer to the presence of harmful substances or pollutants in water bodies. It happens when untreated wastes and pollutants are discharged into water bodies. As a result, the water of sea, rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoir, and ground-water get polluted.
The major sources of water pollution includes untreated industrial wastes, domestic dumps and garbage, thermal power stations, agricultural pesticides and insecticides, etc.
The water pollutants are discharged both directly and directly. Though, human acts are mostly responsible for water pollution, sometimes water may get polluted for reasons beyond human control such as volcanic eruptions, soil erosion, natural mixing of mineral-oils at sea, etc.
Water pollution may disrupt human life to a great extent. It is highly important to take steps forward to prevent water pollution.
Prevention of Water Pollution
Here are the top 14 ways to Prevent Water Pollution.
1. Sewage treatments: The household water should be treated properly so that they become environmentally safe. Adequate care should be taken to ensure that effective sewage treatment process is in place and that contaminated water does not get mixed with the environment. in order to prevent water pollution, human and animal excreta should be prevented from mixing with its sources. Construction of pit toilet and proper sewage treatments can offer some solution to this problem.
2. Prevent river water to get polluted: The flowing water of the river cannot be cleaned easily by natural process. Since, a large number of external substances are discharged into the water, the river water becomes polluted. This may cause diseases to the people using river water. Thus, every effort should be made to prevent the river water to get contaminated. People should not be allowed to throw wastes into the river water. Further, effective urban runoff (discharge of polluted storm water into river) mitigation system such as retention basins, infiltration basins, etc. should be in place.
3. Treatment of wastes before discharge: Factories are expected to treat its effluent wastes prior to discharge. Toxic material must be treated chemically and converted into harmless materials. If possible, factories should try to recycle the treated water.
4. Strict adherence to water laws: Laws and legislation relating to pollution should be strictly followed by all. People should be made aware that adherence to water laws are in their own interest.
5. Treatment of drainage water: It cities, a huge amount of water is put into drains every day. The water that flows through the city drainage system should be properly treated. Harmful pollutants be removed, before they are introduced into reservoirs. If this water allowed going into water reservoirs without treatment, it will pollute them.
6. Treatment plants: Big cities and towns usually have effluent treatment plants. These plants filter out undissolved materials. Chemical treatment is also given to separate out unwanted dissolved chemicals. The treated water is either allowed to go into the water reservoirs or refused in houses. Occasionally, the treated water is used for farming if the fields to be irrigated lie in the vicinity of the water treatment plants.
7. Keep the pond water clean and safe: Washing, bathing of cattle in the pond that is used by human should not be done. Washing of dirty clothes and bathing of cattle make the pond water dirty and unsuitable for human use. If these ponds are continually misuses, then it may lead of severe consequences.
8. Routine cleaning: Ponds, lakes and wells meant for human use should be routinely cleaned and treated, so that it remains fit for human use. It is an essential step that should not be avoided. A system of regular testing of pond and lake water can be introduced to ensure the safety of the water.
9. Don’t pour insecticides in sinks and toilets: Never pour household insecticides, medicines, etc. down the sink, drain or toilet. At homes, people often throw wastes and old medicines into the bathroom toilet. This practice is discouraged for the reason that the chemical compounds of medicines, insecticides, etc., when mixed with other chemicals, may result in formation of harmful substances.
10. Self hygiene: Self hygiene must be maintained and drinking water must not be polluted. Drinking water should be kept undercover in a clean place. One should not put his hands into the drinking water containers. Also, the practice of cleaning the drinking water reservoirs on a regular basis need to be strictly followed. The water meant for drinking should be purified prior to use. In the absence of good water purifier, it is recommended to drink boiled water. This is also important to prevent water borne diseases.
11. Sanitation: Sanitation system must be improved. The benefits of cleanliness on human health need to be understood. Human contact with hazardous materials should be prevented. After using the toilet, one should always use the flush and wash their hands with soap and water.
12. Public Awareness: Common public should be aware about the effect of water pollution. Voluntary organization should go door-to-door to educate the people about environmental problems. They should perform street plays for creating awareness about the environment. They should run environmental education centers. Students can impart health education to enable people to prevent water pollution.
13. Reduce the use of water as coolant by large industries and power plants: Massive quantity of water is being used as coolant buy industries and power plants. Very often, these water are discharged in water bodies without prior treatment. Very often unnaturally hot or cool water is released into the natural water bodies. This causes sudden change in the temperature of the water is known as “thermal shock”, and it disturbs the water inhabitants badly. The water ecosystem can be saved from thermal pollution, if the water used as coolant is reused by the industries and not discharged into these natural water bodies.
14. Effective waste water management system: The municipalities of most urban cities should have robust waste water management system to minimize the risk of urban pollutants being introduced into the rivers. Tests should be in place to check the proper functioning of these system.
There were above, in brief, the 14 basic ways to prevent water pollution.