This short essay on Flood contains information on what is Flood, how it is caused, its effect, relief and preventive Measures.
What it Flood and how it is caused?
Rain-water falls on big mountains as well as upon plains. As the river bed is lower in level, all the rain-water flows to low lands and rivers. When the rainfall is heavy, rivers, streams and other channels cannot contain all the rain-water in their beds. Then the water overflows their banks. This called a flood.
Sometimes, a flood is caused by the melting of snows on the mountains which increases the volume of water in the rivers. Breaches in the embankment of a river also cause floods.
Effects of Flood
At times flood comes all on a sudden. People sleep at night in their houses peacefully. They wake in the morning to see their houses surrounded with water. This cause untold suffering and immense miseries to the people. Their belongings are washed away. Houses collapse and people are rendered homeless. Many men, women, children and cattle are swept away by the current of the river. Floods destroy crops standing in the fields and cause famine. They also cause epidemics. Many people lose their resources and tools and thus lose their occupation. It is a very pitiable sight to see cattle and men being washed away by the current of the river during the floods. Often entire families are washed away and they drift on the thatches and frail barges, aimlessly. The flood also damages railway lines and makes the running of trains impossible.
Flood Relief Measures
In time of flood the Government of India adopts various measures to alleviate the sufferings of the people. It arranges for both long-term and short-term relief. The short-term relief means immediate relief. This includes distribution of food, cloth, medicines etc. The long-term relief means free distribution of seedlings, remission of rent, grant of loan for reconstructing houses and for reclaiming land, etc. Even private relief societies are organizes by the people. They also render much help to the flood-stricken people.
It is possible to check the frequent visits of floods. We can do so by digging canals, by raising the level of river-banks and by putting strong dams across the rivers. All this requires great engineering skill and heavy expense. The Government often carries out these projects when funds permit.