Geography of Gujarat – (Location and Introduction)
The state of Gujarat is located on the west coast of India. It lies between 20°01′ North and 24°07′ North latitudes, and 68°04′ East and 74°04′ East longitudes.
Gujarat is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west and south-west, Pakistan in the north-west, Rajasthan in the north and north-east, Madhya Pradesh in the east and Maharashtra in the south-east.
The state of Gujarat was formed on 1st May, 1960 as a result of the reorganization of the former Bombay state it covers an area of about 1,96,024 sq.km. It has a population of 4,11,74,060 persons (according to the census of 1991).
Gujarat is recognized as one of the leading industrialized states of India.
Relief or Physical Feature of Gujarat
Gujarat is a peninsular state of India and it is almost surrounded by the Arabian Sea on its three sides. Physiographically it has four geographical regions: (1) The Kathiawar peninsula or Saurastra, (2) The Kachchh peninsula, (3) The Rann of Kachchh and (4) The Gujarat Plain.
1. The Kathiawar Peninsula or Saurashtra
The Kathiawar peninsula is traditionally known as Saurashtra. It lies on the west and is surrounded by the Arabian Sea on its three sides. Its central mass is an elevated highland with hills. The Girnar and Gir hills are most prominent. The Girnar has a high peak named Gorakhnath (1,117 meters). The land slopes gently down towards the coast from the central mass. A narrow strip of coastal plain surrounds the peninsula.
2. The Kachchh Peninsula
It is situated in the northwestern part between the Rann of Kachchh in the north and the Gulf Kachchh in the south. It is a desolated and an isolated raised platform covered with sand, sand dunes and mud-flats.
3. The Rann of Kachchh
It lies on the northern and eastern parts of the Kachchh peninsula. It is marshy saline lowland covered with mud-water, sand, mud and grass. During winter the saline marshy land dries up and a thin layer of salt is left on it. Its northern part is known as the Great Rann and its eastern part is called Little Rann.
4. The Gujarat Plain
The entire eastern portion of the slate of Gujarat is a fertile plain and is formed by the alluvium brought down by the river Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada and Tapti. The plain slopes down gently along with these rivers towards the west and south-west. It is the most populous part of the state.