The Chota Nagpur Plateau Region
Chota Nagpur plateau is a dissected plateau in India. It is one of the most important industrial region in India. It comprises of the districts of Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, Dhanbad, Palamou, Santal Parganas of Bihar and Purulia districts of West Bengal. In the north of Chota Nagpur plateau there is the Ganga Plain, Orissa in the south, East Gangetic Plain in the East and Madhya Pradesh and Bangelkhand Plateau in the West.
The Chhotonagpur plateau is divided into three broad physical divisions:
- Ranchi Plateau,
- Hazaribagh Plateau,
- Kodarma Plateau.
Ranchi is the highest part of this plateau.
Chota Nagpur – Store house of minerals.
Chota Nagpur plateau is called the store house of minerals of India.
No other part of India is as rich in minerals as this region is. It accounts for 40 to nearly 70% per cent of the country’s production of various minerals—except petroleum.
The minerals fouun in Chota Nagpur Plateau are coal, iron-ore, copper, asbestos, bauxite, china clay, chromite, dolomite, limestone, feldspar, fire clay, keonite, manganese, mica, silica, steatite, vanadium steatite, uranium gold, antimony, etc. are found in different parts of this plateau.
- Coal: Jharia, Bokaro, Karanpura, Giridi, Ramgarh, Daltangunge, and Damodar Valley are producing near about 74% of total coal production in India.
- Iron-ore: Noamundi, Gua, Kolhan, Dharwar, Budabaru, etc. are producing high grade Hematite iron ore nearly 40% of the total production of India is obtained from Chhotonagpur Plateau.
- Dolomite: Dolomite is mainly found in the Palamou district of India.
- Limestone: Limestone is found at Chaibasa, Jagnnathpur, Singbhum, Hosir-Bachra-Dundway, Babhana-Hoyar-Khalari areas of Ranchi District; Bundu-Bansaria, and Kurkuta region of Hazaribagh District.
- Mica: Chhotonagpur plateau is the largest producer of Mica in India. Kodarma, Domchanchi, Jhumri-Tilaiya, Giridhi, are the major Mica producing centre of the plateau. Ruby Mica of Kodarma is world famous.
- Bauxite: It is mined at Jojohati & Roroburu and in the Kolhan estate of Singbhum district of this plateau. Lohardaga is noted for bauxite.
- Copper: Copper is mined at Rakha, Masabni in Singbhum districts.
- Asbestos: It is mined at Singhbhum district, Narda, Kalimati, Jojohati and Roroburu.
- Feldspar: It is mined near Chrichaki, Bagardih, Bengro, Kubadih and Hundru etc.
- Kyanite: It is mined at Singhbhum district (Lapsa Buru).
- Fire-clay: It is mined at Rajhara and Latihar in the Palamou districts.
- China-clay: It is mined at Hat Gamaria, and its adjoining region.
- Manganese: Manganese is mined at Singhbhum district of this region. Gold is mined in the sands of Subarnarekha of river of this region.
Because of the enormous deposition of above mentioned minerals, the plateau is known as the ‘store-house of minerals.
Chotanagpur plateau is developed in metallurgical industries
Chotanagpur plateau is developed in metallurgical industries because of the following factors:—
- Availability of metallic minerals like iron-ore, bauxite, manganese, copper, chromite.
- Availability of coal at Jharia, Bokaro, Karanpura, Giridih.
- Availability of chromium at Jozohati and Rasoburu.
- Well-developed transport and communication especially of railways (SE/E) roadways
- Cheap power (hydel & thermal) and cheap labors.
- Kolkata port facility, iron steel, aluminium, heavy machine plants, machine tools heavy
- Engineering, foundry forge, steel pore, pipes and fitting, rail engine, locomotives, wagon, rails etc. developed here.
Industries in Chotanagpur Region
The main industries of the Chota Nagpur Plateau region includes Iron and steel, automobiles, rail engines, chemical fertilizers, explosives, coal washery, cement, heavy engineering, machine tools, paper, asbestos. glass and ceramic, refractory, agricultural machineries, earth moving machineries, electrical cables and wire, heavy chemicals, mining machineries, foundry forge projects, telephone & telegraph equipments textile industry, diesel engines for motor boat, copper melting station, high tension insulator, zinc based industries, aluminium factory.
- Iron & Steel: Jamshedpur and Bokaro have two big iron and steel factory which are producing each and every kind of steel products.
- Automobile: Telco is producing different kinds of automobiles (cars, trucks, mini bus, lorry etc.). The factory is also producing rail engines for narrow-gauge railways. Besides these, the factory is also producing agricultural implements etc.
- Chemical Fertilizer: Sindhri has the largest chemical fertilizers. It has also cement factory.
- Explosive: An explosive factory based on coal, is established at Gomia.
- Cement: Cement factories are established at Khelari, Japla, Jhinkapani and Bokaro.
- Heavy Engineering: Heavy engineering, machine tools are produced at Ranchi, Hatia, Jamshedpur and Adityapur.
- Aluminium: Dhanbad and Muri have aluminium factories which are producing utensils, and different types of aluminium products.
- Mining Machineries: Dhanbad is producing all sorts of mining machineries.
- Textile: Jasidi has textile factory producing clothes and other products.
- Electrical and Telephone equipments etc. are produced at Dhanbad, Ranchi, and Sindhri etc.
- Glass-ceramic Refractory is situated at Ramgarh, Dhanbad, Barakar, which are producing glass & ceramic and bricks and tiles.
- Paper: Paper mill is functioning at Dalmianagar.
- Foundry Forge: High tension insulator, electrical equipments etc. producing factories are situated at Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Bokaro etc.
- Copper: A copper melting plant has been established at Moubhandar.
- Micanite industries are established at Ranchi, Hazaribag and Kodarma.
- Besides these, there are innumerable mills and factories situated at Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Giridih, Jhumri-Tilaiya, Chaibasa, Jamshedpur, Jharia, Dhanbad, Daltongunge, Harihargunge, Garwa and Japla and are producing innumerable consumer products.