India being an agricultural country, water has served as the most important resource for agriculture. Next to China, India has second largest acreage of irrigated land in the world. In a monsoon country with a characteristic dry season and variability of rainfall, man’s ingenuity has long been exercised to reduce his dependence on nature.
The story of water is the story of Indian civilization, indeed, all civilizations. Fifty centuries ago the Mohenjo-Daro civilization of Indus Valley enjoyed the benefits of well-designed water supply and even public swimming pools and baths.
Modern civilization has increased the importance of water as a resource. Economic progress of India is not only tied with agricultural development, but also with industrial development for which she requires hydel power, water for industry, and for domestic use in the ever-growing urban settlement.
Different types of fishes and other animals live in the sea-water. Another wealth of the sea is minerals. Among them sodium chloride or edible salt, Ilmenite, Monazite, Manganese Nodule, and Magnesium are the most important. Sea is also a very important source of gas, petroleum and renewable energy resources.