The artificial way of supplying water to the agricultural land at the right moment in an appropriate volume for the proper growth of the plants in order to get the maximum yields of cultivation is technically called irrigation. But irrigation also includes clearing away of excess water from the agricultural land.
There is a great necessity of irrigation in Indian agriculture. India has a great diversity and variety of climate and weather conditions. These conditions range from extreme of heat to extreme of cold and from extreme dryness to excessive rainfall. Due to some reasons irrigation is needed in Indian agriculture.
- Uncertainty of Monsoon rainfall both in time and place.
- Irregularity in distribution of rainfall throughout the year.
- Excessive rainfall causing flood.
- Draught is an annual event in some areas.
- India is a land of Rabi Crops. But there is not rainfall in winter months.
- Some soils need more water.
- Introduction of H.Y.V seeds and multiple cropping need water throughout the year.
The types of Irrigation mainly practiced in India are:
(a) Sichhni, (b) Donga
(a) Dug Well, (b) Tube Well: (i) Shallow. (ii) Deep.
(a) Perennial, (b) Non-Perennial