India is a big country and possesses a great diversity in physio-graphical features. India has therefore a variety of climatic environments in different regions of the country. The climatic zones of India can be broadly divided into six divisions:
1. Tropical Rainy Climatic Zone: On Kerala Coast, Karnataka Coast, Goa and northern part of Konkan Coast, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Eastern Himalayan Region barring areas of mountain climatic region, Assam valley and plain region of West Bengal form the Tropical Rainy Climatic Zone. The mean annual temperature varying from 18° Celsius to 27° Celsius and average annual rainfall exceeding 400 centimeter are the features of this climate.
2. Humid Subtropical Climatic Zone: Bihar, Uttar Pradesh (eastern parts), Jammu, Madhya Pradesh (Eastern part) Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Western Maharashtra, Uttarakhand (valley), Himachal Pradesh (valleys), Western West Bengal, Jharkhand fall under Humid Subtropical Climatic Zone. High temperature in summers, cold weather in winters and average annual rainfall varying from 150 centimeter to 400 centimeter are usual. During hot and dry summer, temperature may rise maximum 46° Celsius. Rainfall occurs during June – September.
3. Tropical Savanna Climatic Zone: The leeward side of the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Western parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, North-eastern Gujarat, parts of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan and a large part of the Deccan Plateau experience Tropical Savanna Climate. Long dry hot summers, cold winter, and the average annual rainfall varying between 75 centimeter and 150 centimeter characterize the climate of this region. In summers, temperature rises up to 46° Celsius. Winter temperature seldom falls below 18° Celsius. Rainfall during autumn and winter is a typical feature in the northern parts of the Tamil Nadu coast and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh coast.
4. Steppe Climatic Zone: The steppe region comprises eastern Rajasthan, eastern slope of the Western Ghats, southeast Punjab, southern Haryana, and western Gujarat. A type of continental climate prevails here. Diurnal range of temperature is high. Annual rainfall varies from 20 centimeter to 75 centimeter.
5. Mountain Climatic Zone: The Mountain Climatic Zone comprises the entire Himalayan Mountains. The region stretches from Arunachal Pradesh in the east up to the mountains of Jammu and Kashmir in the west. The climate is characterized by long cold winter. Below zero degree Celsius records at higher altitude. The Eastern Himalayas receive more rainfall than the Western Himalayas. Snowfall is common.
6. Desert Climatic Zone: The Marusthali of Rajasthan is a sandy arid land in western Rajasthan. It is India’s Desert Climatic Zone. High diurnal and annual range of temperature and very low rainfall characterize the Desert climate. The summer temperature rises over 48°Celsius. January is the coldest month. No rainfall condition prevails years together. The mean annual rainfall ranges between 10 centimeter and 20 centimeter.