Jute is a kharif crop. It is sown in March-April on lowlands and in May-June on uplands. The geographical and climatic conditions for jute cultivation is given below:
1. Temperature and Humidity: Jute thrives well in a hot damp climate. Monthly average temperature to the extent of 26 degree Celsius is ideal. Temperature may fluctuate between 24 degree Celsius and 37 degree Celsius, the optimum being around 34 degree Celsius. Average humidity of 80% to 90% is necessary.
2. Rainfall: Jute is a thirsty plant. Jute requires sufficient rainfall well distributed over the period of growth. The pre-monsoon fall though low (varying from 25 centimeter to 55 centimeter) is necessary as it promotes the growth of the plant until it gets heavy rainwater. An annual average rainfall exceeding 150 centimeter is ideal for Jute cultivation. Occasional rainfalls at intervals favor the growth of Jute.
3. Soils: Jute plant is called fertility-exhausting plant. Therefore, Jute needs new alluvial soils. In absence of new alluvial soils, application of chemical fertilizer is needed. Jute is also grown in clayey soils, but the fibers become sticky. Sandy soils produce coarse fiber.
4. Water bodies: Water for soaking of plants and washing the striped fiber is needed.
5. Labor: A large supply of cheap labor is needed.
6. HYV: In order to increase the yield of Jute fibers, improved seeds such as JRC-212, JRC-7447, JRO-632, JRO-7835, etc. are used.
7. Producing States: In order of importance, the Jute producing states are West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Tripura, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Maharashtra.