The alluvial soil is spread all over the plains of north India. They are also found in the four delta regions of the south. Strips of alluvium occur along rivers in the plateau as well as in the mountains.
Alluviums are mainly loams, i.e. mixtures of sand and clay. New alluvial loams are very fertile. In the younger stage of the riverine plains, sandy soils are more common. While in the beds of the rivers, it consists generally of pure sands. These soils cannot retain water. ‘Zaid’ types of crops grow here, such as watermelons. Near the river mouths, the soil is usually clay. It retains water but does not allow root growth.
In the plains are found patches and banks of old alluvium. There are huge deposits of old alluvium on the banks of Yamuna near Agra. Old alluviums are infertile due to leaching.