Early Life of Babur
Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur, the ruler of Kabul and Qandahar was one of the greatest men of medieval Asia. He was born on 14th February, 1483 and his father Umar Shaikh Mirza-II was the ruler of Farghana. Babur’s father was a Timurid prince while his mother was a descendant of Changez Khan.
From his very boyhood, Babur was very brave, fearless, courageous, self-reliant and ambitious. His father died when Babur was a mere lad of eleven and from 1494 to 1504 A.D. he had to suffer a lot of opposition from the side of his maternal and paternal uncles and his own brothers. He had also to face the famous Uzbeg leader Shaibani Khan. Even then, he ever lost his nerve and besides maintaining his hold over Farghana twice occupied Samarqand as well and seated himself on the throne of his great ancestor, Amir Timur.
But destiny was driving him towards India. That is why despite his best efforts during 1502-1504 A.D. there appeared no prospect for him in Central Asia. Just then he learnt of the unpopularity of the Arghuns in Kabul. He proceeded to Kabul and captured it in October 1504.
From 1504 to 1512, his attention was still riveted chiefly on Samarqand but at the end of 1512, he was convinced that it was beyond his power to establish a permanent hold on Samarqand. He therefore bent all his energies to the task of consolidating and extending his power in Afghanistan.