Features of Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization (also known as Harappan Civilization) is an ancient India civilization that flourished more than 4000 years ago in the north-western parts of Indo-Pakistan sub-continent. It derived its name from river Indus, which is the main river of the region. The various features of Indus Valley Civilization are given below:
1. This civilization is extended far beyond the Indus Valley. The main towns of Indus valley civilization were Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Kalibangan, Lothal.
2. The significant features of Indus Valley civilization are personal cleanliness, town planning, construction of burnt-brick houses, ceramics, casting, forging of metals, manufacturing of cotton and woolen textiles.
3. Mohenjo-Daro people had finest bath facilities, drainage system, and knowledge of personal hygiene.
4. They were equally conscious of plant medicine since there was occasional warfare.
5. The town planning and other characteristics indicate that a homogeneous indigenous culture developed.
6. The portrayal of a three-faced figure surrounded by various animals has been considered as Shiva in the form of Pasupati or Brahma, the originator of Brahmi School of learning.
7. The seal has been available in the stupa area that is generally believed as college area. Computer study of the available seals has been started in different centers.
8. The naksatras are of Harappan origin and these are related to later Dravidian names.
9. Application of decimal scale in linear measure is another very important achievement of the Harappans.
10. They had perhaps a fairly good idea of lunar astronomy, as envisaged from some of the seals since they were very much attached to navigation and fire worship as found in Kalibangan.
11. The rectangular bath at each of the Harappan sites was considered a holy place.
12. The Harappan people could prepare painted potteries of burnt clay, glazed potteries faience, terracotta, etc. The glazing of potteries is believed to be of Indian origin.
13. The cities were supported by both trade and agriculture. The foundations of well-planned shipyards at Kalibangan and Lothal and granaries at all these main Harappan sites indicate how important they were in the economy of that time.
14. Certain medicated and contemplative postures of the people, available among terracotta figurines suggest that they also developed the science of physical and mental discipline to a high degree.