Impacts of Industrialization in India
India is a predominantly agricultural country. The well-being of Indian economy is directly connected with the welfare of her masses dwelling in the rural areas. With the scientific and industrial development, we had to adopt a vigorous industrial policy. The introduction of heavy industries have both positive and negative impact on Indian society and economy.
Government launched massive economic reforms: Our Government introduced “New Economic Policy” in 1991. The vigorous economic Plans enshrined the industrial schemes and projects.
Private sector in now encouraged to invest into heavy industries. It sought to establish in the country a belt of heavy industries, like the gigantic steel plants at Durgapur, Rourkela and Bhilai.
Positive Impact of Industrialization
Low cost of production: The introduction of industries have led to the decrease in the cost of production of many essential items. The decrease in cost is the result of economy of Large scale production. It allows to save time and labour. Industrial goods have become more affordable for common people.
Self-sufficient: Before independence, we used to spend hundreds of millions of rupees over import of cloth only, as we had no heavy industries in the real sense of the term. With the advancement of textile industry in our country, we are able to manufacture clothes at a much lower cost. In this way, we made ourselves self-sufficient in providing our basic needs.
Employment: Large industries need thousands of skilled and semi-skilled workers. It provides massive employment opportunity for a large chunk of people.
Improved Agriculture: In the modern age efficient agricultural system is that, which is done with the help of machine and mechanical devices. For this purpose, we have to adopt the latest Industrial system.
Defense and security: But we must keep pace with the march of time. We have to defend our country against foreign aggression. We must manufacture latest weapons, for it is most unwise to depend upon foreign aid for defense of one’s country.
Negative Impact of Industrialization
Mechanized, heavy and large-scale industries have negative impact which adversely affects the environment, society and economy of this country.
Decline of cottage industry: Throughout, India has been proud of her rural cottage industries. The silk produced by the village-weavers had been a source of attraction all over the world. With the advent of heavy mechanical industries began the chapter of the decline of our village cottage industries.
Mass migration from rural areas: Another attack is that with the creation of heavy mechanized industries in the urban areas, the rural population would start mass-migration into town and cities, thereby making the unemployment problem more acute and complex.
Depletion of natural resources: Due to industrialization, there is constant depletion of natural resources. Many industries are powered by thermal power plants that consumes coal. Since, large industries are spread over many acres of land, agricultural lands and forests are often cleared to make available the required land.
Pollution: Large industries emits many harmful gases into the environment. The introduction of harmful chemicals into air leads to air-pollution. The noises that it produces leads to noise-pollution.
Increase of war-like situation: Out of the degenerating effects of heavy industries is born contention. In developed nations, most of these Heavy industries are engaged in the production of war materials. With a lot of war weapons in hands, there has been an increase in war-like situation among countries.
It is not industrialization, rather the greed and selfishness behind the industrialization which produce adverse effect on the moral and spiritual life of people.
Our industrial policy does not discourage private industrial enterprises. But our Government must be cautious in maintaining good relations between capitalists and laborers.
Without maintaining a harmonious relation between the laboring class and management, Industrial Policy of the Government cannot be ideally successful.