Origin of Kushana Empire
The origin of Kushan Empire lies in mystery. However, historians have tried to trace the origin of Kushans.
It is generally held that the Kushanas were a section of the Yue-chi. Some other scholars are of the opinion that because of Yue-chi divided the Ta-hia country into five district hi-hous which were under small chiefs of Saka origin shows that the Yue-chi themselves were Sakas. This interpretation that the Kushanas did not belong to the Yue-chi stock was accepted by many historians. W.W. Taru, however, vehemently rejects the theory and asserts that the Kushanas were a branch of the Yue-chi. The older view that the Kushanas belonged to the Yue-chi stock commends itself for the simple reason that both the Chinese annals of Panku and Fan-ye agree to the major point that the Yue-chi came to occupy Ta-hia region which was later on aggrandized.
The latest attempt to solve the problem relating to the nationality of the Yue-chi and the Kushanas has been made by the American scholar Maenchen-Helfen. He asserts that there is, in fact, no real discrepancy in the two Chinese annals, and that the Kushanas were among five hi-hous as such were feudatories of the Yue-chi king, Maenchen-Helfen’s opinion rests on a skillful appraisal of all available historical and linguistic data affecting the ancient composite tribe.
Now if we turn to Fan-Ye’s annals Hou Han-shu we find that the Kushanas (Kueishuang) was one of the five district hi-hous. After more than hundred years the Chief of the Kushana group named Kujula Kadphises attacked and annihilated the four other chiefs and made himself lord and then invaded Parthia, Kabul, Kipin, Pota and became the complete master of the area.
Kujula Kadphises succeeded him and in his turn conquered India, apparently the kingdom of Taxila and established there a chief for governing it.