Features of Mughal Architecture
The great Mughals had left an indelible mark on architecture of Indo-Persian school of art. The use of pure white marble, inlay work of gold, silver and precious metals, cut and polished stones, gardens around tombs, minarets in the mosques and palace halls were some of the chief features of the art.
- Babur built buildings at Dholpur, Gwalior, Sikri etc and mosques at Kabuli Bazar of Panipat, Sambhal and Agra.
- Humayun built mosques at Fatehabad in Hissar. Sher Shah built monuments, inns, miners and educational centers. His Purana Quila is a unique blend or Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Muslim School of art.
- Akbar’s time saw a further improvement. A fusion of Indo-Persian style was seen in the Humayun’s Tomb.
- In Agra Fort importance was given to Gujarat and Bengal architectural school.
- Fatehpur Sikri, the greatest creation of Akbar houses Diwani-Khas, Diwan-i-Am, Panch Mahal, Jodhabai Place, Birbal’s Place, Buland Darwaja and the tomb of Salim Chisti outside the enclosure.
- Jahangir devoted more time to miniature painting and his architectural contributions are poorer than that of Akbar. Itimad-ud-Daula’s tomb at Agra and Akbar’s mausoleum at Sikandra are the two buildings made by him.
- The Mughal architecture in Shah Jahan’s time reached its final glory. Shah Jahan replaced Akbar’s red stone structures in Agra and Lahore and rebuilt them in white marble. His additions were seen in Diwan-i-Khas, Diwan-i-Am, Sish Mahal, Musamman Burj and Moti Masjid.
- The Red fort built of red sandstone and marble has exquisite and vast gateways, Di wan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas. In the Diwan-i-Khas, where the emperor gave audience to the royal princess, nobles and other dignitaries had the gem studded Peacock Throne placed.
- Jama Masjid at Delhi was one of the most elegant buildings of his time. Shah Jahan has immortalized his name by buildings the Taj Mahal in the memory of his beloved queen Mumtaz Mahal. Aurangzeb, a staunch Sunni Muslim was averse to art and culture. His period was marked by decline in art and architecture.