Distribution of Manganese in India
Manganese is an important mineral, which is used for making iron and steel and it acts as basic raw material for manufacturing its alloy. Nearly 10 kilograms of manganese is required for manufacturing one tonne of steel. It is also used for the manufacture of bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, batteries and china-clay.
Production and Distribution
According to Geological Survey of India, our total manganese reserves are estimated at 16.7 crores tonnes. India has the second largest manganese ore reserves in the world after Zimbawe. About one-fifth of the world’s manganese ores are found in India.
About three-fourths of Manganese reserves in India are distributed in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The remaining Manganese is distributed in Rajasthan, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Jharkhand.
India is the fifth largest producer manganese ore after Brazil, Gabon, South Africa and Australia. Production of manganese ore in India remains more or less static. It was 13.98 lakhs tonnes in 1950-51 and 15.26 lakhs tonnes in 1998-99. More than 95% of India’s manganese ore is produced by Orissa, Karnataka, Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Orissa and Karnataka produce more than half of the India’s manganese ores.
- Odisha (Orissa): Produces about 33% manganese ore of India. It is obtained from Gondite deposits in Sundargarh and Keonjhar districts and Kodurite and Khondolite deposits in Kalahandi and Koraput districts. Manganese is also mined from the lateritic deposits in Bolangir and Sambalpur districts.
- Karnataka: About 24% of India’s manganese ore is produced by Karnataka. The state accounts for 6.41% of India’s reserves. The main deposits occur in North Canara, Bellary, Dharwad, Shimoga, Chitradurga, Chikmagalur and Bijapur districts.
- Madhya Pradesh: About 19% of India’s manganese ore is obtained from Madhya Pradesh. The main belt extends in Balaghat and Chhindwara districts.
- Maharashtra: It produces about 20% of India’s manganese ore. The main belt is in Nagpur and Bhandara districts. High grade ore is found in Ratnagiri district.
- Goa: Goa possesses about 18% of the Indian reserves which is the largest. Goa produces about 16% of India’s manganese ore and occupies fifth position. Most of the production comes from Parena and border areas.
- Andhra Pradesh: About 4% of our manganese ore is produced in Andhra Pradesh. The main belt is found between Srikakulam and Vishakhapatnam districts. Vijayanagaram, Cuddapah and Guntur are other manganese-ore producing districts.
Other producers are Gujarat, Rajasthan, Orissa and Jharkhand. They produce about 4% of India’s Manganese.