The Tribal groups in India have distinct cultural patterns. They form the indegenous group are also called ‘upajati’ in some regions of India.
A large chunk of Indians belong to Tribal group (Tribal community) – Adivasis, as they are called, they occupy distinct regions, especially in the hilly and forested areas.
Scheduled Tribes in India form the largest proportion of the total population in Lakshadweep and Mizoram followed by Nagaland and Meghalaya. Madhya Pradesh has the largest number of Scheduled Tribes followed by Bihar. Bastar district of Madhya Pradesh consists of largest number of Scheduled Tribes. There are no Scheduled Tribes in Punjab, Delhi, Chandigarh, Pondicherry, Haryana and Jammu and Kashmir.
There are more than 50 tribal groups in India. Most of the tribals belong basically to the Negrito, Australoid and Mongoloid racial stocks.
The list of names of Important tribal groups and Communities) are:
- Abors: Arunachal Pradesh
- Aptanis: Arunachal Pradesh
- Badagas: Nilgiri (TN)
- Baiga: Madhya Pradesh
- Bhils: Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, some in Gujarat and Maharashtra
- Bhot: Himachal Pradesh
- Bhotias: Garhwal and Kumaon regions of U. P.
- Chakma: Tripura
- Chenchus: Andhra Pradesh, Orissa
- Gaddis: Himachal Pradesh
- Garos: Meghalaya
- Gonds: Madhya Pradesh. Also in Bihar, Orissa and A.P.
- Gujjars: Himachal Pradesh
- Jarawas: Little Andamans
- Khas: Jaunsar-Babar area in U.P.
- Khasis: Assam, Meghalaya
- Kol: Madhya Pradesh
- Kotas: Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)
- Kuki: Manipur
- Lepchas: Sikkim
- Lushais: Mizoram
- Murias: Bastar (Madhya Pradesh)
- Mikirs: Assam
- Mundas: Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal
- Nagas (Angami, Sema, Ao, Tangkul, Lahora): Nagaland, some in Assam and NEFA region.
- Oarons (also called Kurukh): Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal.
- Onges: Andaman and Nicobar islands
- Santals: Birbhum region in Bengal, Hazaribagh, Purnea in Bihar, Orissa
- Sentinelese: Sentinel Island, Andaman and Nicobar
- Shompens: Andaman and Nicobar
- Todas: Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)
- Uralis: Kerala
- Warlis: Maharashtra