Introduction: The rising population of India is one of the major problems of the country. The present population of India consists of over 1.21 billion people.
The big population of India undoubtedly provides large work-force resources which, if properly utilized, can highly advance the economic prosperity of the country.
However, a large number of people are poor and illiterate. Their basic need are not being met. Under the existing condition of our economy, it cannot be said that the vast masses of people growing out of proportion to our resources are really an asset to the country.
We have to give more attention to the growth of population and its relation to the problem of unemployment and capital formation in the country.
The abnormal population growth is commonly believed to be one of the principal causes of India’s poverty and very low standard of living for her people.
Efforts are being made in India for improving the economic condition of people but it can bear no fruitful result if population is allowed to growl unchecked.
The national activities in free India are directed to the task of providing adequate means of livelihood to an increasing number of people through an integrated development of agriculture, trade, commerce and industries. The schemes adopted for this purpose cannot materialize unless the population problem is tackled satisfactorily.
However, it is also a fact that we cannot exercise any effective check on population unless there be an appreciable rise in the standard of living for the common people.
Overpopulation weakens the economy in many respects. The increasing pressure of population on natural resources will retard the economic progress and minimize the scope for social services in the form of education, wealth, housing, etc., so essentially needed for a progressive state. Therefore, a planned growth of our economy needs some effective check on population.
The benefits of family planning schemes initiated by the Government are being emphasized in many ways. Nevertheless, it requires persistent propaganda work before public opinion can be fully mobilized for a planned growth of population.
We must make an all-out drive to educate the masses in the methods of family planning. It is a good sign that a section of our people especially those belonging to the middle class are gradually becoming population conscious and are taking active interest in the methods devised and recommended for population control.
Birth rate must be kept within reason able limits to make a definite advance towards a higher standard of living, which is the primary need of India. The task will certainly be much easier if people get a chance of reaching a higher standard of living. It will then by itself serve as a kind of incentive to birth control.