Second Battle of Panipat
The second battle of Panipat was won by the Mughal Army of Akbar. The battle took place between the armies of Mughal Emperor Akbar and King Hemu. The war took place on 5th November, 1556.
Having consolidated his position in Delhi and Agra, Hemu decided to send an army to the Punjab. But he was considerably delayed. Had he given the retreating forces under Tardi Beg a hot chase, the prospects for Akbar would have considerably worsened.
Nevertheless Hemu was so confident of his success that he committed a great blunder in sending his artillery along with the vanguard without making due arrangements for prompt reinforcements when necessary.
Consequently, when Ali Quli Shaibani at the head of the Mughal vanguard attacked Hemu’s vanguard near Panipat, he scored a complete victory and captured Hemu’s artillery.
When Hemu at the battle of Panipat attacked Akbar at the head of his army it was the artillery he had lost that was utilized by the enemy to hold on to its ranks. Despite this handicap, Hemu was able to route both the wings of the Mughal army and he proposed to clinch the issue by bearing down the enemy centre by a concentrated use of his war-elephants.
To all appearances, the Mughals faced a certain defeat. But it so happened that an arrow pierced the eye of Hemu who fell down unconscious in his howdah.
As soon as Hemu was wounded and the army lost his leadership, it became disorganized and ultimately disengaged and fled. Iskandar Khan entered Delhi in triumph. Two days later, Akbar and Bairam Khan also arrived at the capital. Agra was occupied and all the rosy dreams of Hemu and Adil Shah came to an end.
This second battle of Panipat completed the work initiated by Babar thirty years before and imparted solidarity and strength to the shaky foundations of the Timurid dynasty in India.